This general indicator refers to changes to the State, regional or local economy resulting from transportation expenditures. These include the short-term impacts of capital spending (e.g., design and construction of a new commuter rail line) and the longer term effects of annually recurring expenditures (e.g., labor costs associated with the operation of commuter trains, track maintenance). Direct, indirect and induced impacts are typically estimated. They may be expressed in terms of jobs, output, income, and/or tax revenue. These in turn may be expressed in gross or net terms (gross includes transfer from other sectors, whereas net includes only net new value to the State economy).